If the magnet's magnetism is an electromagnetic ether v […]
If the magnet's magnetism is an electromagnetic ether vortex, and a magnet doesn't see any electromagnetic ether vortex, why is it magnetic? Our answer is: the magnetism of matter originates from the movement of electrons in the atom, and the movement of the electron will produce a vortex of electromagnetic ether.
As early as 1820, Danish scientist Oster discovered the magnetic effect of electric current, and for the first time revealed the connection between magnetism and electricity, thus linking electricity and magnetism.
To explain the phenomenon of permanent magnets and magnetization, Ampere proposed the molecular current hypothesis. According to Ampere, there is a ring current in the molecules of any substance, which is called molecular current, and molecular current is equivalent to a primitive magnet. When the substance does not have magnetism in the macro, the orientation of these molecular currents is random, and the magnetic effects produced by the outside world cancel each other out, so the entire object is not magnetic. Under the action of an external magnetic field, the molecular current equivalent to the elementary magnet will tend to be oriented in the direction of the external magnetic field, so that the object will display magnetic properties.
There is an essential connection between magnetic and electrical phenomena. The magnetism of matter is closely related to the moving structure of electrons. The concept of electron spin first proposed by Uhlenbeck and Goldschmidt is to treat the electron as a charged sphere. They think that, similar to the movement of the earth around the sun, the electrons orbit the nucleus on the one hand and have an orbit accordingly. Angular momentum and orbital magnetic moment, on the other hand, rotate around their own axis, with spin angular momentum and corresponding spin magnetic moment. Stern-Geirach's magnetic moment measured from the silver atomic ray experiment is exactly this spin magnetic moment. (It is now considered incorrect to think of the electron spin as a rotation of a small ball about its axis.)
Electrons orbiting around the nucleus in a circular orbit and spinning around them will generate vortices of the electromagnetic ether to form magnetism. People often use magnetic moments to describe magnetism. Therefore, electrons have magnetic moments, which are composed of the orbital and spin magnetic moments of the electrons. In a crystal, the orbital magnetic moment of an electron is affected by the lattice, and its direction is changed. A joint magnetic moment cannot be formed, and there is no magnetic effect to the outside. Therefore, the magnetism of matter is not caused by the orbital magnetic moment of electrons, but mainly by the spin magnetic moment. The approximate value of the spin magnetic moment of each electron is equal to one Bohr magneton. Is the unit of atomic magnetic moment,. Because the nucleus is about 2,000 times heavier than the electron, and its speed of movement is only a few thousandths of the speed of the electron, the magnetic moment of the nucleus is only a few thousandths of the electron, which can be ignored.
The magnetic moment of an isolated atom depends on the structure of the atom. If an atom has an unfilled electron shell and the spin magnetic moments of its electrons are not cancelled, the atom will have a "permanent magnetic moment". For example, an iron atom has an atomic number of 26 and has a total of 26 electrons. In addition to one of the five orbitals, two electrons must be filled (spin antiparallel), and the remaining four orbitals have only one electron, and these electrons The spin directions of are parallel, so the total electron spin magnetic moment is 4.